Restoring GRUB after a reinstall

You had just did a weekly install of some OS which did not detected Linux, Follow the steps mentioned below to get GRUB working again. Please note this would erase the current bootloader and install a new one for you if you are unsure of what you are doing do not try this

    1. Boot from a Linux Live CD ( ex ubuntu or knopix, i use Ubuntu)
    2. Open the terminal
    3. Follow the commands mentioned below
    • sudo grub

    if sudo doesnot works switch to root user and use grub drectly, Find the ROOT device you will get the values for X & Y which will be used later.

    • grub> find /boot/grub/stage1

    Set the root device from the information achieved from the above command

    • grub> root (hdX,Y)

    Install GRUB

    • grub> setup (hd0)

    Exit GRUB

    • grub> quit

    Reboot the system without using the live CD you will dind your boot loader back :)

    From http://ubuntuforums.org/showpost.php?p=121355&postcount=5

    User / Group Disk Quotas A three Step Guide

    A disk quota is a limit set by a system administrator that restricts certain aspects of file system usage on modern operating systems. "Wikipedia"

    Requirements : Quota Package

    Where to get it : Quota package is generally available in majority of Linux Distros but still if your distro doesn't provide you with Quota compile it from http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/ :)

    Step 1) Installation :

    a) openSUSE : yast -i quota

    b) Ubuntu : sudo apt-get install quota

    c) Fedora : yum install quota

    d) Others : Use rpm or compile if not available

     

    Step 2) Enable Disk Quota

    Disk quota is generally applied on a user or a set of users to its recommended to enable Disk Quota on your Home partition dont enable quota on the root partition unless you are under the expert category

    To enable disk quota in certain partition just add "usrquota,grpquota" to that partition in your fstab you need root privileges to do this of course.

    Following is my sample fstab entry for /home

    /dev/sda9 /home ext3 acl,user_xattr,usrquota,grpquota 1 2

    After you have added the entry in fstab you need to create the aquota.user and aquota.group files in the partition where you have enabled quota /home in our case use the following command in /home directory

    touch aquota.user

    touch aquota.group

    chmod 600 aquota.user

    chmod 600 aquota.group

    Now a reboot is recommended

     

    Step 3) Limiting Users on Quota

    Now its the time to give quota to user/groups using the following command

    edquota -u <username>

    or

    edquota -g<groupname>

    This will open up the configuration file which would look something like this

    Disk quotas for user <user> (uid <uid>)

    Filesystem blocks soft hard inodes soft hard

    /dev/sda9 9215 1048576 1050624 603 0 0

    You would notice soft, hard and inodes in this file i would recommend not to use inode as using this would be limiting user on the number of files to create specify size in KB for soft and hard part soft is actually the limit and after soft limit is reached the user is given a grace on size to a maximum mentioned as hard

    This completes quota :)

    Now how to apply same settings for different users, For instance, to use the same settings for user "nagar" that you set for user "abhishek", you would enter:

    edquota -p abhishek -u nagar

     

    Further Study http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/Deployment_Guide-en-US/ch-disk-quotas.html

    SMTP Authentication Support for your Drupal Sites

    Drupal uses the php mail() function to send emails by default.
     
    Here is a module which adds SMTP functionality to Drupal. More specifically, the ability for your site to send mail using an SMTP server that requires authentication.
     
    Link to Module http://drupal.org/project/smtp
    This module is currently in Beta stage for Drupal 6.x, i just tried it works fine and you can use this too. remember to read INSTALL.txt before installing this module as there are certain dependencies which are needed to have this module working.
     
    This module uses the smtp and mail class’s from PHPMailer. http://phpmailer.sourceforge.net

    How to Masquerade (ICS) in Linux

    Its very simple to masquerade in linux with few lines of iptables and ip_forward commands.

    Assumptions : Your Linux box has 2 NIC's one connected to internet (eth0) other connected to local network (eth1 IP 192.168.0.10)

    first of all you have to flush and delete existing firewall rules which are there by default in linux .

    so flush rules by typing the following in terminal

    iptables -F
    iptables -t nat -F
    iptables -t mangle -F

    now delete the chains by using

    iptables -X
    iptables -t nat -X
    iptables -t mangle -X

    now its time to save iptables so type

    service iptables save
    service iptables restart

    now all rules and chains will clear !

    check it by /etc/sysconfig/iptables which has all defaults rules set to accept.

    now open /etc/rc.d/rc.local

    and insert the following line

    echo ” 1 “> /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

    and then save and close.

    now asuming that your internet interface is eth0 then type :

    iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
    service iptables save
    service iptables restart

    note:- check your service of iptables is set to start during boot up .

    or check status of your iptables service

    chkconfig -–list iptables

    if level 5 is on then its ok othewise start service at level 5 or level 2345.

    Now Set the Default Gateway of eth1 as eth0's IP Address

    and then set Default Gateways of all other client to Server's eth1's IP address (192.168.0.10) enjoy :)

    Adding CAPTCHA to Drupal Guestbook Module

    Guest book is one of the essential part for any website, To add a guestbook on your drupal site you can use the guestbook module, the problem you would face is adding a captcha to this now captcha is also very essential to control spam now how to add captcha its very simple just execute the following query

     

    INSERT INTO `captcha_points` ( `form_id` , `module` , `type` ) 
    VALUES
    ( 'guestbook_form_entry_form', NULL , NULL );

    and you are done now go to /admin/user/captcha on your site and enable captcha on guestbook this would look something like this

    गामाभाना

    Need for phonetic editing has its roots in different keyboard layouts developed and used by different users and multiple fonts which in combination failed to produce unique easy to use compatible typing/editing solution. The problem is more in the area of software solutions being developed for different Indic Languages. Web based Direct editing or phonetic editing is an implementation which allows user to type in the context using phonetic key patterns across different keyboards, browsers and different Indic scripts.

    What is gamabhana?

    gamabhana is an open source implementation that uses purely client side java script to enable phonetics in editable html tags such as div (not editable in mozilla firefox) , iframe, input, textarea, document so that you can type in the context phonetically in the selected Indic script with transliteration capabilities that support unicode fonts with the help of  pre-designed gamabhana maps.

    With gamabhana library and gamabhana phonetic maps you can:

    • Attach phonetics to editable html tags such as iframe and/or input (single line) and/or textarea and/or document.
    • Design your own transliteration maps for any language/script.
    • Achieve Unicode support across browsers, applications, platforms.
    • Type in the context phonetically ( direct input method) in IE ( V 5 above) and Firefox Mozilla.

    गामाभाना is now available @ drupal.org

    Project Page http://drupal.org/project/gamabhana_drupal

     

    Skype in Ubuntu

    Skype is not available in the default configured repositories of Ubuntu so an alternate is downloading a deb package from skype and installing it but as i am an apt-get fan i would recommend adding the repositories listed below and then using

    # sudo apt-get install skype

    But you need to Add a Repository using the commands below before using apt-get if there is no command listed for your distro goto Medibuntu

    • Ubuntu 9.04 "Jaunty Jackalope"

    wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/jaunty.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list

    • Ubuntu 8.10 "Intrepid Ibex"

    sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/intrepid.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d medibuntu.list

    • Ubuntu 8.04 "Hardy Heron"

    sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/hardy.list --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list

    Once you have added the repository add GPG Key using

    sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring && sudo apt-get update

    And you are done now you can install skype using apt-get :)

    Broadcom 43xxx on Linux (openSUSE)

    Hopefully there would be many like me who have struggled in configuring Broadcom Wifi Cards on Linux due to their proprietory drivers, now a days it works fine in Ubuntu if you download the drivers available but still it doesnot work with various other distros. so here is a 3 step guide to configure Broadcom Wifi on your linux box these steps have been tested on openSUSE but would work on any distro Step 1 ) Download a file from here. Step 2) Install bcm43xx-fwcutter it is commonly avaiable for all distros Step 3 ) follow the commands

    # bcm43xx-fwcutter wl_apsta-3.130.20.0.o

    (bcm43xx-fwcutter is the application which u have installed wl_apsta-3.130.20.0.o is the file which you have downloaded from this blog:)  preferably create a directory and copy wl_apsta-3.130.20.0.o there and execute the command in the directory)

    # cp *.wl /lib/firmware

    (*.wl are the files which were generated from the command above there would be some 16 files)

    And you are done use the network manager to configure Wireless Netwoks :) this was really simple. Desclaimer: code/commands given in the posts worked fine for the author please use them on your own risks they may damage your system.

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    Show Me The Source

    I am planning a portal namely www.showmethesource.com where i plan to host source codes for almost all languages and of all kinds starting from the Hello World :) to applications, this would be a community driven portal where the users can submit their code snippets and also use the snippets available, in the first phase i would like to include PHP, C, C++, Java, Perl and Python and keep on adding hey users would be able to add languages instead what ever they like, i need your co-operation in this project kindly suggest me ideas which i could implement i also need a LOGO can anyone design it for the portal but remember use open-source tools to design the logo.

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